Introduction to Acts for protection of the environment

Some of the most concerning threats to the environment are

  • Climate change and global warming 
  • Depleting natural resources
  • Pollution
  • Deforestation
  • loss of biodiversity.

1. Environmental protection ACT-1986 

  • The act was introduced against the backdrop of the Bhopal gas tragedy. It was aimed at protecting and  improving the environment.
  • It authorized the central government to regulate the functions of industries on environmental grounds and takes region specific environment problems.
  • It also set standards for discharge of pollutants by factories 
  • It gave rules for management of hazardous waste and provided for isolated storage of hazardous chimerical. 
  • It has an umbrella like frame work that seeks to existing central government in implementing pre-existing environmental laws at the central as well as state levels.

2. Biological diversity ACT-2002 

  • It aims at preserving biological diversity and ensuring equitable distribution of biological resources, including transfer of technology and joint research and development.
  • The act prohibited the patenting of any knowledge accruing out of biodiversity resources without the permission of the Indian government
  • Local communities were given greater control over the use of their knowledge and resources.
  • Biodiversity management committees, state biodiversity boards and a national biodiversity authority were setup at the local ,state and national level respectively.

3. National Green Tribunal Act-2010   

  • It created a special tribunal to ensure that environment based cases are dealt with a special manner.
  • Such a tribunal can help in ensuring that the carbon emission levels don't reach a harmful degree. It does so by adopting the "polluter pays" principle.
  • It would also provide relief or compensation to the affected people, as and when required.
  • The environmental protection ACT, the Forest conservation Act and the Biodiversity Act where laid out in schedule one of the NGT Act.
  • In order to make it more accessible five places of sitting were set up all over India, with new Delhi serving as the principal bench.

4. Noise pollution ( Regulation and control) Rules 2000

  • The act aims at reducing noise pollution levels by regulating the use of loudspeakers and public address system.
  • It permitted the use of a sound amplifier only within closed premises during night time.
  • Restrictions were also imposed on other noise producing activities like honking and construction work during the night time.

5. wild life protection Act-1972

  • It established of protection plants and animals, the harvesting and hunting of these species respectively was prohibited.
  • A 2002 amendment to the existing act made the punishment and penalty more stringent.
  • Offenses related to trade in animals articles will also be penalized. The objective is to control illegal trade, smuggling and poaching.

6. Forest conservation Act-1980

  • It aims to conserve India forest through disallowing so-reservation of forests and use of forest and for non-forest purposes without prior permission from the central government.
  • It provides certain rights and protections to the scheduled tribes and other forest dwellers.
  • The act was aimed at controlling deforestation.

The following are some Acts and important years

  1. Wild life protection Act - 1972
  2. Water Act-1974
  3. Forest Act - 1980
  4. Air Act 1981
  5. Environmental protection Act 1986
  6. Noise pollution Act - 2000
  7. Biological diversity Act-2002
  8. National Green Tribunal act-2010


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