India ranks 176th out of 180 nations in the Environment Performance Index 2024, indicating a high level of emissions.

 India, which ranks third in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, was categorized as one of the countries with the poorest air quality, projected emissions, and biodiversity and habitat in the 2024 Environment Performance Index (EPI).

According to the report issued on 5 June by the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy and the Columbia Center for International Earth Science Information Network, India was placed 176th out of 180 nations. It was ranked higher than only Pakistan, Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar. This is a little gain compared to the previous EPI ranking, where India was positioned at the lowest position.

2024 EPI Indicators Overview

  • Includes biodiversity, air pollution, water quality, waste management, emission growth rates, and projected emissions.
  • Main focus: ecosystem vitality, environmental health, climate change.
  • India not in the bottom ten for climate change.

EPI's Biodiversity and Habitat Category

  • Checks protection of existing biodiversity and ecosystems.
  • Identifies encroaching buildings or croplands in protected areas.

India's Performance

  • Lags due to heavy coal dependence, contributing to high GHG emissions and air pollution.
  • Ranked 177th in air quality, 172nd in projected emissions by 2025.


 India's Environmental Performance in South Asia

  • India ranks 178th in the EPI for transboundary pollution, affecting Bangladeshi residents.
  •  Global West and Eastern Europe are the top emitters, followed by Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia.
  • India's ranking in climate change is 133 due to advancements in renewable energy and a goal to transition to net-zero emissions by 2070.
  • India needs an additional $160 billion per year in climate change mitigation investments to achieve its goals.
  • India's performance in solid waste management, forests, and agriculture is better, but poor scores in air quality, emissions, and biodiversity affect overall performance.

Not the first time

This is not the first time that India has scored low on the Environment Performance Index, which has been producing reports since 2002. The last EPI in 2022 ranked India at the bottom because of low scores in nearly the same indicators.


 India's Emissions Index 2022: Challenges and Rejection

  • The 2022 Emissions Index (EPI) measures countries' progress towards net-zero CO2, methane, fluorinated gases, and nitrous oxide emissions by 2050.
  • India was in the bottom 10 for lead pollution, drinking water pollution, and terrestrial biome protection.
  • The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MOEFCC) criticized the EPI, stating it was based on unfounded assumptions.
  • The report did not include India's wetlands and forests, carbon sinks.
  • The EPI was developed by modeling past emissions of only 10 years, and the indicators were assigned arbitrary weightage without explanation.
  • Independent researchers, including Chandra Bhusan, criticized the EPI for its subjectivity and ranking methodology.


Half of world’s rangelands are degraded, UN study finds: What are rangelands, why they matter


  • About half of the world’s rangelands are degraded and need policy interventions, and communities depending on them need focused support, according to a new report of the United Nations Convention on Combating Desertification (UNCCD).

What are rangelands?

  • The UNCCD report defines rangelands as natural or semi-natural ecosystems that are grazed by livestock or wild animals.
  • Rangelands contain vegetation such as grasses, shrubs, bushes, open forests, and agroforestry systems (land which contains trees and crops or pastures).
  • The exact nature of rangelands’ vegetation is influenced by rainfall, temperature, and other climate phenomena.
  • Rangeland Atlas is prepared by a consortium of international non-profits and United Nations agencies.
  • Extant of rangelands:
    • Currently, rangelands cover 80 million sq km of Earth’s terrestrial surface area (over half of Earth’s land) and are thus the largest land cover or land use type in the world.
    • In India, rangelands occupy about 1.21 million sq km, from the Thar Desert to Himalayan meadows.
  • Environmental and social significance:
    • They act as carbon sinks, storehouses of fresh water, and prevent desertification of land.
    • They provide food security and livelihoods to millions of people.
    • Rangelands generate 16% of global food production and 70% of feed for domesticated herbivores, most significantly in Africa and South America.

UNCCD Report Findings:

  • Approximately 50% of the world’s rangelands are classified as “degraded” and are in decline.
  • Factors contributing to this degradation include climate change, unsustainable land and livestock management practices, biodiversity loss, and conversion of rangelands to farmlands.
  • Uncertainty over land rights among pastoralist communities exacerbates degradation.
  • Impact on Communities:
    • Deterioration of rangelands adversely affects communities dependent on them.
    • Consequences include reduced soil fertility, biodiversity loss, decreased incomes, and increased conflicts over grazing rights with authorities.

Who are Pastoralists?

  • Pastoralism is a livelihood centred around livestock production, including dairy, meat, wool, and leather.
  • Pastoralists are communities, both indigenous and non-indigenous, engaged in livestock rearing.
  • They rear a variety of animals including sheep, goats, cattle, horses, donkeys, camels, yaks, llamas, alpacas, pigs, ducks, and chickens.
  • Their livelihood depends significantly on access to quality pasturelands (rangelands) and their rights over them.
  • Global and Indian Context:
    • Globally, an estimated 500 million pastoralists are involved in livestock production.
    • In India, approximately 13 million pastoralists are part of 46 groups such as Gujjars, Bakarwals, Rebaris, Raikas, Kurubas, and Maldharis.

Economic Contributions in India:

  • India holds 20% of the world’s livestock population, with 77% reared in pastoralist systems.
  • Pastoralists play a crucial role in protecting indigenous livestock breeds and preserving traditional knowledge of animal rearing.
  • India leads globally in milk production (23% of global output), buffalo meat production, and sheep and goat meat exports, with pastoralists making significant contributions to these sectors.
  • Some important pastoral communities and regions they belong:

Pastoralism in Africa astoralism in Africa:

  • In Africa, even today, over 22 million Africans depend on some form of pastoral activity for their livelihood.
  • Like pastoralists in India, the lives of African pastoralists have changed dramatically over the colonial and post-colonial periods.
  • Some pastoralist communities in Africa:
    • Bedouins, Berber, Maasai,Somali, Boran, Turkana and Kaokoland herders (Namibia).

 Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-climate/rangelands-degraded-un-study-pastoralists-9345551/


Plagiarism and self-plagiarism -Consequences of Plagiarism

 Both plagiarism and self-plagiarism are serious concerns in research methodology, as they undermine the integrity and credibility of your work. Here's a breakdown of each concept and its relevance to research methods:


  •  Definition: Plagiarism involves using someone else's ideas, methods, or data without proper attribution. This includes copying text verbatim, paraphrasing without citing the source, or presenting someone else's findings as your own.
  • Impact on Research Methodology: Plagiarism in research methodology can take several forms:
  • Copying someone else's research design, methodology section, or data collection methods without attribution.
  • Failing to cite sources for existing research findings or theoretical frameworks used in your methodology.
  • Misrepresenting someone else's research data or manipulating data to fit your own hypothesis.


  •  Definition: Self-plagiarism refers to reusing significant portions of your own previously published work without proper citation in a new research project.
  • Impact on Research Methodology: While not as severe as plagiarism, self-plagiarism in research methodology can also be problematic:
  • Reusing identical or heavily paraphrased methods sections from your past research without acknowledging the prior publication.
  • Presenting previously collected data as new data in a new research project, without mentioning the original source.
  • Submitting the same research proposal to multiple funding agencies or conferences.

Why are Both Issues in Research Methodology?

  •  Lack of Originality: Both plagiarism and self-plagiarism hinder the advancement of knowledge by failing to present new methodological approaches or insights.
  • Redundancy: Reusing methods without adaptation can suggest a lack of effort in developing a research design specific to the new project's needs.
  • Ethical Concerns: Both practices violate ethical principles of research integrity and can be considered academic dishonesty.

Avoiding Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism:

  •  Proper Citation: Always cite your sources correctly whenever you reference existing research methods, theoretical frameworks, or data in your methodology section.
  • Paraphrasing Effectively: When referencing your own previous work, paraphrase the text and clearly cite the original source.
  • Developing New Methods: Strive to design research methods that are tailored to your current research question and that build upon, rather than simply replicate, previous methodologies.
  • Transparency: Be transparent about any data or methods reused from your previous work, clearly explaining the context and providing proper citation.


 Consequences of Plagiarism

  • Destroyed Student Reputation. Plagiarism allegations can cause a student to be suspended or expelled. ...
  • Destroyed Professional Reputation.
  • Destroyed Academic Reputation.
  • Legal Repercussions. 
  • Monetary Repercussions. 
  • Plagiarized Research.

Destroyed Student Reputation

Plagiarism allegations can cause a student to be suspended or expelled. Their academic record can reflect the ethics offense, possibly causing the student to be barred from entering college from high school or another college. Schools, colleges, and universities take plagiarism very seriously. Most educational institutions have academic integrity committees who police students. Many schools suspend students for their first violation. Students are usually expelled for further offences.

Destroyed Professional Reputation

A professional business person, politician, or public figure may find that the damage from plagiarism follows them for their entire career. Not only will they likely be fired or asked to step down from their present position, but they will surely find it difficult to obtain another respectable job. Depending on the offense and the plagiarist’s public stature, his or her name may become ruined, making any kind of meaningful career impossible.

Destroyed Academic Reputation

The consequences of plagiarism have been widely reported in the world of academia. Once scarred with plagiarism allegations, an academic’s career can be ruined. Publishing is an integral part of a prestigious academic career. To lose the ability to publish most likely means the end of an academic position and a destroyed reputation.

Legal Repercussions

The legal repercussions of plagiarism can be quite serious. Copyright laws are absolute. One cannot use another person’s material without citation and reference. An author has the right to sue a plagiarist. Some plagiarism may also be deemed a criminal offense, possibly leading to a prison sentence. Those who write for a living, such as journalists or authors, are particularly susceptible to plagiarism issues. Those who write frequently must be ever-vigilant not to err. Writers are well-aware of copyright laws and ways to avoid plagiarism. As a professional writer, to plagiarize is a serious ethical and perhaps legal issue.

Monetary Repercussions

Many recent news reports and articles have exposed plagiarism by journalists, authors, public figures, and researchers. In the case where an author sues a plagiarist, the author may be granted monetary restitution. In the case where a journalist works for a magazine, newspaper or other publisher, or even if a student is found plagiarizing in school, the offending plagiarist could have to pay monetary penalties.

Plagiarized Research

Plagiarized research is an especially egregious form of plagiarism. If the research is medical in nature, the consequences of plagiarism could mean the loss of peoples’ lives. This kind of plagiarism is particularly heinous.

The consequences of plagiarism are far-reaching and no one is immune. Neither ignorance nor stature excuses a person from the ethical and legal ramifications of committing plagiarism. Before attempting any writing project, learn about plagiarism. Find out what constitutes plagiarism and how to avoid it. The rules are easy to understand and follow. If there is any question about missing attribution, try using an online plagiarism checker or plagiarism detection software to check your writing for plagiarism before turning it in. Laziness or dishonesty can lead to a ruined reputation, the loss of a career, and legal problems.

Source: https://guides.library.ucmo.edu/plagiarism

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