ANU CDE M.Sc Botany Cytology, Genetics and Plant Breeding Syllabus

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Unit – I

Cytology : Comparative study of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Call cycle and cell division in eukaryotes. Significance of mitosis and meiosis. Chromosome structure and packing of DNA. Organization of centromere, telomere, nucleolus, and ribosomal DNA genes. Euchromation and heterochromatin, karyotype analysis, banding patterns, karyotype evolution.

Unit - II

Special types of chromosomes. Structural and numerical alterations of chromosomes: Duplication, deficiency inversion and translocation heterozygotes. Origin, occurrence production and meiosis of haploids, aneuploids and ecaploids. Auto and allopolyploids; Evolution of major crop plants.

Unit – III

Genetics: Principles of Mendelian inheritance, interaction of genes, linkage, recombination, chromosome mapping in eu- karyotes, mapping of genes by tetrad analysis. Multiple alleles and pscudoalleles. Probability-laws, application to gene segregation and chi-square test for goodness of fit. Sex determination mechanism in plants, animals and man. Sex-limited inheritance. Cytoplasmic and multiple factor inheritance. Mutations: Gene mutations types, induced mutegenesis, mode of action of mutagens and role of mutations in plant breeding.

Unit - IV
Plant breeding: Pure line selection: mass selection, pedigree method, bulk method, back cross method, recurrent, clonal selections and hybridization.

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