India ranks 176th out of 180 nations in the Environment Performance Index 2024, indicating a high level of emissions.

 India, which ranks third in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, was categorized as one of the countries with the poorest air quality, projected emissions, and biodiversity and habitat in the 2024 Environment Performance Index (EPI).

According to the report issued on 5 June by the Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy and the Columbia Center for International Earth Science Information Network, India was placed 176th out of 180 nations. It was ranked higher than only Pakistan, Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar. This is a little gain compared to the previous EPI ranking, where India was positioned at the lowest position.

2024 EPI Indicators Overview

  • Includes biodiversity, air pollution, water quality, waste management, emission growth rates, and projected emissions.
  • Main focus: ecosystem vitality, environmental health, climate change.
  • India not in the bottom ten for climate change.

EPI's Biodiversity and Habitat Category

  • Checks protection of existing biodiversity and ecosystems.
  • Identifies encroaching buildings or croplands in protected areas.

India's Performance

  • Lags due to heavy coal dependence, contributing to high GHG emissions and air pollution.
  • Ranked 177th in air quality, 172nd in projected emissions by 2025.


 India's Environmental Performance in South Asia

  • India ranks 178th in the EPI for transboundary pollution, affecting Bangladeshi residents.
  •  Global West and Eastern Europe are the top emitters, followed by Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia.
  • India's ranking in climate change is 133 due to advancements in renewable energy and a goal to transition to net-zero emissions by 2070.
  • India needs an additional $160 billion per year in climate change mitigation investments to achieve its goals.
  • India's performance in solid waste management, forests, and agriculture is better, but poor scores in air quality, emissions, and biodiversity affect overall performance.

Not the first time

This is not the first time that India has scored low on the Environment Performance Index, which has been producing reports since 2002. The last EPI in 2022 ranked India at the bottom because of low scores in nearly the same indicators.


 India's Emissions Index 2022: Challenges and Rejection

  • The 2022 Emissions Index (EPI) measures countries' progress towards net-zero CO2, methane, fluorinated gases, and nitrous oxide emissions by 2050.
  • India was in the bottom 10 for lead pollution, drinking water pollution, and terrestrial biome protection.
  • The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MOEFCC) criticized the EPI, stating it was based on unfounded assumptions.
  • The report did not include India's wetlands and forests, carbon sinks.
  • The EPI was developed by modeling past emissions of only 10 years, and the indicators were assigned arbitrary weightage without explanation.
  • Independent researchers, including Chandra Bhusan, criticized the EPI for its subjectivity and ranking methodology.


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