Research Process OR Steps of Research UGC NET Papers I Notes

Research involves a systematic process that focuses on being objectives and gathering a magnitude of information for analysis, so that the researcher can conclude.

I.Formulation of the Research Problem

Following steps are used in formulation of research problem

1.Select problem

2.Literature review 

3. Formulation of objectives 

4. Identifying research variables and measuring scales 

5. Formulating hypothesis

 Main considerations in selecting a research problem

You can find innumerable research problems in any area. Obviously, you cannot study all the problems 


2.Manageable magnitude

3. concept measurement 

4. Level of expertise

5. Relevance

6. Availability of data

7. Ethical issues


II. Preparing Research Design and study design 

A research design is a blue print for the researcher, it helps the researcher to decide the course of action during various stages. Therefore, research design involves the following consideration.

1.Objectivity of research study 

2.Selection of methods data collection

3.Source of information-sample design 

4.Tools for data collection

5.Data analysis - Qualitative and Quantitative

Research design achieves the following  purposes:

  1. It makes research efficient
  2. Optimum utilization of resources - maximum information with minimal expenditure, time and money 
  3. Flexibility 
  4. Minimization of bias 
  5. Reliability and objectivity 

III. Developing Data collection instrument 

a) Primary data and secondary data

  1. Primary data is collected for the purpose of current research project.
  2. Whereas secondary data is collected for some other research purpose.
  3. Secondary data is collected from external sources, such as TV, radio, the internet, magazines, books and news papers.

IV. Selecting samples

  1. Sampling is required if the population under study is very large.
  2. A sample can be defined as a representative subset of the population.

V. Writing a research proposal 

  1. A research proposal is a document usually having three to seven pages that informs others of a proposed piece of research.

Click here for details 

 VI. Collecting Data

There are various alternatives available to collect data. The researcher should select one method of collecting data taking into account the nature of investigation, scope and objectives of inquiring, financial cost, availability of time and the desired accuracy.

In case of a survey, data can be collected by any one or more of the following ways:

a) observation

b) personal interviews 

c) Telephonic interviews 

d) Mailed questionnaires

e) Schedule.

VII. Processing and Analyzing data

  1. After collection of data it should be arranged properly and classified into different categories:
  2. Irrelevant data should be separated, and relevant data is coded into symbols so that is may be tabulated.
  3. Tabulation is a part of technical procedure where classified data is in form of table.
  4. This helps for analysis by applying various statistical methods 

VIII. Writing a research report 

  1. Writing a report is the last and most difficult step of the research process.
  2. The report informs the world what you have done, what you have discussed and what conclusions you have drawn from your findings.
  3. The report should be written in an academic style.
  4. The language should be formal and not journalistic.

All the above steps are presented in more detailed manner in upcoming posts. 


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