The SOLO taxonomy (Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes)

 SOLO Taxonomy consists of five levels of increasing complexity that move from the surface level of learning, through to deeper levels of learning, and then extending to conceptualised levels of learning.

The five SOLO Taxonomy levels are:

Prestructural: The learning is new to the student. They need assistance to develop the knowledge and skills required.

Unistructural: The student is beginning to understand the learning at a concrete, surface level.

Multistructural: The student understands several unrelated aspects of the learning.

Relational: The student can make connections with the learning, and can explain how it works at a deeper level.

Extended Abstract: The student has mastered the learning, can now conceptualise the learning and then transfer the knowledge to new areas and understandings.

Through explicit learning goals, differentiated success criteria and engaging learning experiences, SOLO Taxonomy provides our students with opportunities to direct their learning, assess their understandings using a variety of metacognitive approaches, and reach higher levels of learning and achievement.

We also ensure we provide a wellbeing approach to using SOLO Taxonomy strengthened by our Human Literacy Pedagogy, so that each level is celebrated as students begin to move from the concrete to the abstract.

SOLO Taxonomy is also known as a Piagetian approach to learning. Research shows that incorporating this type of developmental approach in education, increases learning achievement considerably.

The SOLO taxonomy (Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes) is a model that describes levels of increasing complexity in students' understanding of subjects. It was proposed by John B. Biggs and Kevin F. Collis in 1982. The model consists of five levels of understanding:

  • Pre-structural - The task is not attacked appropriately; the student hasn't really understood the point and uses too simple a way of going about it. Students in the pre-structural stage of understanding usually respond to questions with irrelevant comments.
  • Unistructural - The student can only identify one aspect of the task and their understanding is limited and fragmented. They may be able to recall facts or procedures, but they are unable to see how these relate to each other.
  • Multistructural - The student can identify several aspects of the task, but their understanding is still fragmented and they are unable to see how these aspects relate to each other. They may be able to list facts or procedures, but they are unable to explain how they work together.
  • Relational - The student can see how the different aspects of the task relate to each other and can form a coherent whole. They are able to explain how the different parts work together and can apply their understanding to new situations.
  • Extended abstract - The student can go beyond the specific task and see how it relates to other concepts or ideas. They are able to make generalizations and apply their understanding to new situations in a creative and flexible way.

The SOLO taxonomy can be used to assess student learning and to identify areas where they need further support. It can also be used to plan and deliver learning experiences that are tailored to the different levels of understanding.

Here are some examples of how the SOLO taxonomy can be used in different learning contexts:

  • A teacher might use the SOLO taxonomy to assess student understanding of a concept by asking them questions that require them to demonstrate different levels of understanding.
  • A tutor might use the SOLO taxonomy to plan a learning experience for a student who is struggling to understand a concept. The tutor could identify the student's current level of understanding and then plan activities that will help the student to move to the next level.
  • A curriculum developer might use the SOLO taxonomy to design a curriculum that is aligned with the different levels of understanding. The curriculum developer could identify the different levels of understanding that are required for different tasks and then plan activities that will help students to develop their understanding.

The SOLO taxonomy is a valuable tool for educators, trainers, and other professionals who are responsible for designing and delivering learning experiences. By understanding the different levels of understanding, these professionals can create learning experiences that are more effective and engaging for their learners.


1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Structure_of_observed_learning_outcome




Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.

Find Us On Facebook

Teaching Aptitude






JNTUK Pre Ph.D Research Methodology Tutorial