Characteristics of scientific method in research methodology

The scientific method is a systematic and structured approach to research that is used to investigate phenomena and test theories. The following are the key characteristics of the scientific method in research methodology:

  1. Empirical: The scientific method is based on empirical evidence, which is obtained through observations and measurements of the phenomenon being studied. Data is collected systematically and objectively using valid and reliable methods.

  2. Systematic: The scientific method follows a systematic and structured approach to research. The researcher begins by formulating a hypothesis, then designing and conducting experiments or studies to test the hypothesis, and finally analyzing the data to draw conclusions.

  3. Replicable: The scientific method emphasizes the importance of replicability, which means that other researchers should be able to reproduce the experiment or study using the same methods and obtain similar results.

  4. Objective: The scientific method is based on objectivity, which means that the researcher should remain impartial and avoid bias when collecting and analyzing data.

  5. Falsifiable: The scientific method requires that theories and hypotheses can be falsified or disproved through empirical evidence. This means that theories and hypotheses must be testable and subject to empirical verification or falsification.

  6. Generalizable: The scientific method aims to generalize the findings of the study beyond the specific sample or population being studied. This means that the results should be applicable to other similar populations or situations.

  7. Cumulative: The scientific method is cumulative in nature, which means that new knowledge is built upon existing knowledge. Researchers build upon the work of others, refine theories and hypotheses, and contribute new findings to the body of knowledge.

In summary, the scientific method is characterized by empirical evidence, systematic and structured approach, replicability, objectivity, falsifiability, generalizability, and cumulative nature. These characteristics help to ensure that scientific research is rigorous, reliable, and contributes to the advancement of knowledge.

The scientific method is, thus, based on certain basic postulates which can be stated as under: 

  1. It relies on empirical evidence; 
  2.  It utilizes relevant concepts; 
  3. It is committed to only objective considerations; 
  4. It presupposes ethical neutrality, i.e., it aims at nothing but making only adequate and correct statements about population objects; 
  5.  It results into probabilistic predictions; 
  6.  Its methodology is made known to all concerned for critical scrutiny are for use in testing the conclusions through replication; 
  7. It aims at formulating most general axioms or what can be termed as scientific theories 


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