Paris Climate summit or Paris agreement on Climate change

  • Paris climate summit is one of the most important summits of recent times. It was supposed to be the most undeniable agreement post Kyoto.
  • the overall objective of this summit was to limit the global temperature increased 2030 to below 2 degree Celsius.
  • In 2015, Paris agreement was signed as an international agreement with an aim to reduce global greenhouse gas and this, it deals with the climate change.
  • There are 29 articles in agreement.
  • There have to be efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degree Celsius above per-industrial level.
  • It talk about limiting of the amount of green house gasses emitted by human activity.
  • A 100-billion dollar fund is to be created from 2020, which is to be reviewed by the year 2025. The review mechanism will be held every five years. First to be conducted in 2023.
  • Developing countries must be encouraged to "enhance their efforts" and move over time to increase their cuts at the same time developed countries counting to take lead.

Under article 2 of Paris summit the following are the major aims:

1. Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 degree Celsius above per-industrial level. and at the same time pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degree Celsius above per-industrial level.

2. Making finance flows consistent with a pathways towards low greenhouse gas emissions and to find suitable funding mechanisms.

  • Paris agreement comes under the broad umbrella of UNFCCC. 
  • UNFCCC is a convention held in 1992 to combat climate change.
  • Kyoto protocol (1997) was another major international commitment under UNFCCC.
  • India has also pledged to create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tons of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree coverage by 2030.
  • The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty on climate change. It was adopted by 196 Parties at COP 21 in Paris, on 12 December 2015 and entered into force on 4 November 2016.
  • To achieve this long-term temperature goal, countries aim to reach global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible to achieve a climate neutral world by mid-century.
  • The Paris Agreement is a landmark in the multilateral climate change process because, for the first time, a binding agreement brings all nations into a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects.

What have we achieved so far?

Although climate change action needs to be massively increased to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement, the years since its entry into force have already sparked low-carbon solutions and new markets. More and more countries, regions, cities and companies are establishing carbon neutrality targets. Zero-carbon solutions are becoming competitive across economic sectors representing 25% of emissions. This trend is most noticeable in the power and  transport sectors and has created many new business opportunities for early movers.

By 2030, zero-carbon solutions could be competitive in sectors representing over 70% of global emissions.


Previous Year UGC NET Bits:

1. As per provisions of Paris agreement, the intended national determined contribution reviewed by every [ UGC NET Dec-19]

a) 15 years b) 10 years c) 5 years d) 3 years

2. The Paris agreement aims to limit the temperature rise in this century by how many degrees Celsius the per-industrial levels?  [ UGC NET June-19]

a) 1 degrees Celsius  b) 2 degrees Celsius c) 0.5 degrees Celsius  d) 3 degrees Celsius 

3. Which of the following are the features of Paris agreement? [ UGC NET June-2020]

a) The agreement focuses on mitigation measures fr environment pollution

b) The agreement recognizes the principles of equality and common but differentiated responsibilities.

C) Paris agreement pertains to 2020 climate actions.

Ans: b and C

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