Kyoto Protocol - Climate change / Green house gasses

 Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement between nations to mandate country-to-country reduction in green house gas emissions.

 Kyoto Protocol was signed at the 3rd COP of the UNFCC in Kyoto, Japan.

Started in 1997 and came into effect in 2005.

There are around 192 member counties where the major polluting countries like US ( never signed the protocol) and Canada (withdrew in 2012) are absent.

It is an international treaty which extends the 1992 UNFCCC that commits state parties to reduce green house gas emissions.

The detailed rules for the implementation of protocol were adopted at COP-7 in Marrakesh, Morocco in 2001 and are refereed to as the Marrakesh record.

The target covers six main gases( Green house gases) such as: Carbon dioxide(CO2), methane(Ch4), Nitrous oxide(N2O), Chlorofluorocarbons(HFCs), Per fluorocarbons(PFCs), and Sulphur hexaflioride(SF6) 

Commitment period: 1st (2008-2012) and 2nd(2012-2020)

The Kyoto flexible market protocol mechanism include

1) Clean Development Mechanism(CDM)

2) Emission Trading

3) Joint Implementation

Share of carbon dioxide emission from fuel combustion(2015): 1. China-28% 2. United States-15% 

3.Russia -5% 4. India-6%

The concept of carbon credit and carbon footprint oriented from Kyoto protocol.

India has been consistent in its position about the core principle of the Kyoto of the CBRD ( Common but differentiated responsibility.


The world’s first legally-binding climate change agreement came into force. The Kyoto protocol, to which 192 countries are a party, aimed to reduce emissions of six greenhouse gases by 5.2% by 2012, relative to 1990. This graphic gives a brief overview of the agreement and the outcome of its first period.

UGC NET Previous Year Bits:

1. Kyoto Protocol is related to________ [UGC NET-2013]

a) Ozone depletion b) Hazardous waste c) Climate change d) Nuclear energy



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