Elements and Types of Evaluation NTA UGC NET Notes

India's National Policy on education(1986) states " A system of teacher evaluation open; participative and data-based will be created and reasonable opportunities of promotion to higher graduates provide".

Kothari commission reiterated as "Evaluation is a continuous process. It forms an integral part of the education and is intimate to an educational objective".  

There are a number of approaches that can be used in evaluating teaching. The most common include
  • Classroom observations
  • Value-added models that try to measure gains in student achievement.
  • Student evaluations of teachers.
  • Judgments made by the teachers or principal.
  • Teacher self-evaluation
  • Teacher portfolios of work.
Desired characteristics of evaluation

1. Comprehensiveness.
  • It must try to assess all aspects of a child's development.
  • Different techniques might be used by the teacher to evaluate the performance of the child.
2. Continuous

Evaluation is a continuous process as education.
It is not just an examination but a part of the evaluation process.
There is no fixed time limit for the completion of the evaluation process

CBCS's continuous and comprehensive evaluation(CCE) is based on the above two parameters.

Functions of Evaluation:
  1. Feedback:- To assess strengths and weakness 
  2. Motivation:- The near realization that you would be evaluated propels a student to work hard.
  3. Better guidance
  4. Remediation:- It helps in locating the areas that require remedial measures.
  5. Facilitates planning
  6. Revision of curriculum
  7. Inter-institutional comparison.
  8. Educational decision marking.
  9. Submission of progress report to patrons.
Types of Evaluation on the basis of the phase of instruction.

A) Placement Evaluation
  • It determines the knowledge and skills of the student possesses.
  • Done at the beginning of the instruction in a given subject area.
  • The main purpose is to check the aptitude of a candidate for the course or subject, whether the candidate has a caliber or not. Example: Entrance Exams.
  • This is also done to see the knowledge base of students and a teacher can start discussion keeping that in view.
B) Prognostic Evaluation
  • Aims to predict the possible degree of success in a specific subject area.
  • It helps to gather evidence related to conceptual understanding and other prerequisites still that are significant for success in that powered.
C) Formative Evaluation
  • Also called internal evaluation.
  • Used in the improvement of educational programs.
  • Used for judging the worth of a program while the program activities are in progress.
  • Done continuously throughout the course period.
  • It focuses on the process.
  • Quick feedback ( check students position regarding here success or failure on attaining the instructional objectives)
  • The teacher acts as a coach.
  • Improving understating and performance over a short period of time.
  • It also defines the specific errors that need to be corrected.
  • For teachers, formative evaluation provides information for making instructions and remedies more effective.
  • Formative evaluation is informal nature.
  • The formative evaluation also provides the teacher feedback regarding the efficiency of teaching methods, so that the teaching can be improved.
D) Diagnostic Evaluation
  • Closely related to formative evaluation.
  • It tries to provide an explanation for the possible causes of problems in learning.
  • These tests are more comprehensive and detailed.
E) Summative Evaluation / External Evaluation
  • Done at the end of the course/program.
  • It involves formal testing of students; Example, annual exams, half-yearly exams in schools
  • The focus is on the outcome.
  • It includes oral reports, projects, term papers, and team-teaching achievement tests.
  • is shows how good or how satisfactory the student is in accomplishing the objectivity of instruction.
F) Portfolio assessment / Evaluation
  • It takes place over a long period of time.
  • The project, written assignments, tests, etc. are the tools of this assessment.
  • Feedback to the learner is more formal and also provides opportunities for learners to re-demonstrate their understanding after the feedback has been understood and acted upon.

G) Scholastic Assessment

      It refers to the assessment of the cognitive abilities of learners in various academic activities, which are associated with various subjects. Therefore, all those abilities in the cognitive domain, namely, knowledge, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation, and creativity come under scholastic abilities.

Continuous and comprehensive evaluation(CCE) is one such example.

Method of Evaluation

There are two methods of evaluation that are used in the teaching and learning evaluation process.

1. Norm-Referenced Evaluation

      It is a type of evaluation in which the performance of students is measured by comparing the relation with hypothetical average student.

2. Criteria-Referenced Evaluation.

In this test, the performance of a student is measured against a predetermined learning standard. These tests are extensively used in higher education.

Previous Year questions

1. The performance of a student is compared with another student in which type of testing? [June-19]

(1) Criterion-referenced testing

(2) Diagnostic testing

(3) Summative testing

(4) Norm-referenced testing

2. Below are given statements pertaining to evaluation systems. Identify those which correctly explain them. [July-2018]

(i) Criterion-Referenced Testing (CRT) focuses on a delimited domain of learning tasks.

(ii) Norm-Referenced Testing (NRT) requires a clearly defined group.

(iii) Formative tests are given at the end of a course.

(iv) Both Norm-Referenced Testing (NRT) and Criterion-Referenced Testing (CRT) use the same type of test items.

(v) Summative tests are used regularly during teaching transactions.

(vi) Mastery tests are examples of Norm-Referenced Testing.

Choose the correct answer from the code given below:

(1) (i), (ii) and (iii)

(2) (i), (ii) and (iv)

(3) (iv), (v) and (vi)

(4) (ii), (v) and (vi)

3. From the list of evaluation procedures given below identify those which will be called ‘formative evaluation’. Indicate your answer by choosing from the code: [July-2018]

(a) A teacher awards grades to students after having transacted the course work.

(b) During interaction with students in the classroom, the teacher provides corrective feedback.

(c) The teacher gives marks to students on a unit test.

(d) The teacher clarifies to doubts of students in the class itself.

(e) The overall performance of a student’s us reported to parents at every three months interval.

(f) The learner’s motivation is raised by the teacher through a question-answer session.


(1) (a), (b) and (c)

(2) (b), (c) and (d)

(3) (a), (c) and (e)

(4) (b), (d) and (f)

4. On the basis of summative tests, a teacher is interpreting his/her students, performance in terms of their wellness lifestyle evident in behavior. This will be called:

(1) A continuous and comprehensive evaluation

(2) Norm-referenced testing

(3) Criterion-referenced testing

(4) Formative testing


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