Key Behaviors and Helpful Behaviors for Effective Teaching

Based on the research conducted by T. Good and J. Brophy in 1987, there are five key behaviors that become the essential of effective teaching, they are lesson clarity, instructional variety, teacher task orientation, engagement in the learning process, and student success rate. Let’s enjoy reading this writing.

What Is an Effective Teacher?

  1. Early definitions of effective teaching focused primarily on a teacher's goodness as a person and only secondarily on his or her behavior in the classroom.
  2. The psychological characteristics of a teacher—personality, attitude, experience, achievement, and aptitude—do not relate strongly to the teacher's behavior in the classroom.

A New Direction

  1. Most modern definitions of effective teaching identify patterns of teacher-student interaction in the classroom that influence the cognitive and affective performance of students.
  2. Classroom interaction analysis is a research methodology in which the verbal interaction patterns of teachers and students are systematically observed, recorded, and related to student performance.
5 Key Behaviors:
    • Lesson clarity: Ideas should be clear to all learners at all levels. Ideas should be conveyed in a clear step-by-step order, they should be uncomplicated and with minimal distractions. (Tip: using advance organizers in beginning of a lesson and summary at end of lesson are very helpful for clarity).
    • Instructional variety: Used a variety of teaching tools (technology, materials, activities, space, and displays). Use a variation in voice and gestures, rewards and reinforcers. (Tip: When questioning, use a variety of questions: fact questions, process questions, convergent questions, divergent questions, etc.)
    • Teacher task orientation: To maximize the time spent teaching, be sure to handle inevitable interruptions quickly, expedite the giving and collecting of materials, prevent or quickly put an end to distracting behavior, organize lessons well, and establish smooth transitions. (Tip: Be as prepared as possible!)
    • Engagement in the learning process: Constantly monitor any seat work and group work, set rules for when students can leave class without disruption, keep a daily schedule to minimize confusion of students, give independent work that is interesting (Tip: have abundant resources on hand that are at or slightly above student abilities.)
    • Student success rate: “Students should spend about 60-70% of their time on tasks that allow almost complete understanding of the material being taught with only occasional errors” (Borich, p. 15). The content should reflect prior learning, with easy to grasp steps for the new material.
      5 Helpful Behaviors:
        • Using student ideas and contributions: Teachers should use mediated dialogues and be sure to acknowledge, modify, apply, compare, and summarize student responses as necessary.
        • Structuring: Teachers should reinforce the learned content and place it in relation to new content. Teachers should give organized lessons of what is to come and summarize what has been taught. (Advance organizers and summaries).
        • Questioning: Use a variety of questions, and be sure to include questions that require more thinking and problem solving.
        • Probing: Draw more out of student responses by getting students to elaborate on their ideas (elicit clarification, solicit additional information, and redirecting the discussion). Help the student to discover the content rather than being explicitly told.
        • Teacher affect: Develop the teacher-learner relationship by use of enthusiasm (inflection in voice and movement, gesturing, and eye contact.
          Previous NTA UGC NET Questions

          Q) Which of the following is the key behavior contributing to effective teaching?

          (1) Summarizing what was told by a student.
          (2) Encouraging students to elaborate on an answer.
          (3) Using direct and indirect questioning.
          (4) Explaining concepts in a logical step by step presentation

          Q) Which of the following are considered as a key behaviors of effective teaching as evident from researches?

          a) structuring through comments made for organizing what is to come
          b) asking process or context based questions
          c) lesson clarity implying the extent, to which teacher's presentation is clear to the class.
          d) using students ideas and contributions while the teacher is presenting the subject.
          e)instructional variety involving teacher's variability and flexibility during presentation.
          f) students success rate implying the rate at which students understand and correctly complete.

          Q)  From the list of the effective teaching behaviors, identify those which are called key behaviors.

          (i) Direct, audible and oral delivery to all students.
          (ii) Encouraging students to elaborate on an answer.
          (iii) Warm and nurturing relationship with learners.
          (iv) Varying modes of presentation.
          (v) Preventing misbehavior with a minimum of class disruption.
          (vi) Organizing what is to come and summarizing what has gone before.

          Select your answer from the options given below:
          (1) (i), (iv) and (v)
          (2) (i), (ii) and (iii)
          (3) (ii), (iii) and (iv)
          (4) (iv), (v) and (vi)



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