Measurement: Concept of measurement– what is measured?

 Measurement in research consists of assigning numbers to empirical events, objects or properties,
or activities in compliance with a set of rules. This definition implies that measurement is a three-part

1. Selecting observable empirical events.

2. Developing a set of mapping rules: a scheme for assigning numbers or symbols to represent
aspects of the event being measured.

3. Applying the mapping rule(s) to each observation of that event.

Concept of measurement

n research, measurement is the process of assigning numbers or labels to characteristics of objects or events to quantify and analyze them. It is a fundamental tool for researchers across various disciplines, allowing them to collect and analyze data objectively and draw meaningful conclusions.

There are two main types of measurement:

1. Quantitative Measurement: This involves assigning numerical values to characteristics that can be ordered or ranked. Examples include measuring the height of students, the weight of objects, or the time it takes to complete a task. Quantitative data can be analyzed statistically to identify patterns, relationships, and differences between.

2. Qualitative Measurement: This involves assigning labels or categories to characteristics that cannot be easily ordered or ranked. Examples include classifying rocks by type, describing the color of a flower, or identifying the emotions expressed by a character in a story. Qualitative data can be analyzed through various methods such as coding, thematic analysis, and discourse analysis. 

 what is measured? 

Research studies study variables as objects or properties, including tangible items like furniture, genes, attitudes, and peer-group pressures. Properties include physical, psychological, and social characteristics of an individual, such as weight, height, posture, leadership ability, class affiliation, and status.

Researchers measure indicates of properties rather than objects or properties. For instance, analyzing a sales force to understand personal properties like age, experience, and weekly calls, the indicates are so accepted that they can be directly observed.

 Measurement of constructs like lifestyles, opinion leadership, distribution channel structure, and persuasiveness is challenging due to inferences based on indicate measurements. Quality of a study depends on the selection of measures, their fit to the circumstances, nature of measurement scales, sources of error, and sound measurement characteristics.


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