Types of Soils in India - Environment UGC NET

1. Alluvial Soil - State: Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand

- Composition: Rich in phosphorus, potash, and lime; deficient in nitrogen

- Crops Grown: Wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton, jute

2. Black (Regur) Soil
- State: Deccan plateau, Krishna and Godavari valleys, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu

- Composition: Rich in iron, lime, aluminium, magnesium, calcium; lacks nitrogen, phosphorus, and humus

- Crops Grown: Cotton, sugarcane, jowar, tobacco, wheat, rice

3. Red Soil - State: Eastern parts of Deccan Plateau, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Odisha, Meghalaya

- Composition: Rich in iron and potash; deficient in lime, nitrogen, phosphorus, and humus

- Crops Grown: Wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane, pulses


4. Laterite Soil - State: Summits of Eastern and Western Ghats, Assam hills, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, West Bengal, Odisha

- Composition: Rich in iron; poor in silica, lime, phosphorus, potash, humus

- Crops Grown: Tea, coffee, rubber, cashew, millets

5. Desert Soil - State: West and North-West India, Rajasthan, North Gujarat, Southern Punjab

- Composition: Rich in soluble salts; deficient in organic matter

- Crops Grown: With irrigation, drought-resistant crops like millets, barley, cotton, maize, pulses

6. Mountain Soil - State: Hills of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Assam hills

- Composition: Rich in iron and humus; deficient in lime

- Crops Grown: With fertilizers, tea, fruits, medicinal plants

7. Saline and Alkaline Soil - State: Drier parts of Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Maharashtra

- Composition: Contains salts like sodium, magnesium, calcium - Not suitable for agriculture

8. Peaty and Marshy Soil - State: Kerala, coastal regions of Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Sunderbans of West Bengal

- Composition: Contains soluble salts, and organic matter; lacks potash and phosphates

- Crops Grown: Rice and jute cultivation


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